Original Article
Ayilya Bakthavatchalam Loganathan, Nazeer Rasool Abdul
J Adv Biotechnol Exp Ther. 2022; 6(1): 109-122.

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ABSTRACT
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease that is certainly preventable and treatable and is caused due to the continuous exposure to noxious substances and toxic gases and is characterized by airflow limitation and chronic inflammation in the lungs coupled with persistent symptoms in the respiratory tract leading to obstructive bronchiolitis and parenchymal emphysema. The incidence and progression of COPD is a complicated pathological phenomenon, and the overall severity is due to its exacerbations and comorbidities in individuals. Further, COPD is a major contributor to the global years of life lost and by 2030 it would be the third leading causes of mortality in the world. Also, knowledge on COPD, its associated conditions, and the clinical understanding of the disease date back to the 16th century. The prevalence, morbidity and mortality may vary across the globe based on their exposure to smoking, tobacco, occupational pollutants, indoor pollution, outdoor air pollution, gender, age, and genetic inheritance. Considering the continuous exposure to toxic substances and aging of the general population, the burden and prevalence of COPD are estimated to increase substantially in the coming years. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients with pre-existing COPD conditions suffer from severe disease progression and delay in recovery.

KEYWORDS
COPD; Epidemiology; Morbidity; Mortality; Prevalence; Smoking.